Driven by the U. These properties are derived from its composition, though the manufacturing process helps to maintain that performance, as does using the correct size for the polymer matrix in the final composite structure. This business — a mixture of fine glass yarns and S-2 Glass fiber products — was spun off in as a joint venture with weaver Groupe Porcher of Lyon, France.
When the market for fine yarns moved to Asia, the business went into Chapter 11 in and was reorganized and emerged in as AGY Aiken, S. Because its furnaces average 3, and metric tonnes 6. HPB already has been adopted for orthodontics and dental implants, and AGY is pursuing other implant applications, such as orthopedics. AGY claims that S-1 Glass is well-suited for composite wind blades, where its higher properties reduce the amount of glass fiber required as blade lengths are extended.
There are two general trends in the glass fiber industry: one is upward, toward enormous growth, and the other is downward, toward lower cost. China has had a hand in both. China has been a key driver in the growth of global fiberglass production since , in part because of its own rapidly rising rate of domestic consumption, estimated at , metric tonnes 1. Its output of 1.
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One recent report states that the U. TFI, Shandong. For the time being, most production of high-value, high-performance glass remains in North America see chart, lower right. China does offer low labor costs as well as favorable Chinese government export treatment, which encourages export sales.
This is an advantage in the production of more labor-intensive products, such as assembled rovings, where multiple strands are wound together into a multi-end roving package, requiring additional handling and processing steps. Kevin Richardson, most roving and yarn production has moved offshore. For R-glass, it may not ever make economic sense to manufacture in China, but then again, markets may emerge that demand these products.
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A general trend, says OCV, is the continuing push toward increased performance at lower price. According to Dzotsi, in a typical graph of specific tensile strength GPa per pound, y-axis vs. Tensile strength values for glass fibers are shown in the "Glass Fiber Mechanical Properties" chart, above left. The versatile polymer shows new strength and other advantages in pultrusion and core materials applications. Airbus pursues fiber metal laminates for future narrowbody construction, citing cost, weight, repair and lightning strike benefits.
Composition of Selected Glass Fibers by Weight. Glass Fiber Mechanical Properties. Jushi Group Ltd. Featured Content Auto industry explores engineering thermoplastic performance improvements.
Industrialized continuous fiber composite printing in Delft. Advancing multifunctional composite wings and fuselage structures. Focus on lower cost drives future growth There are two general trends in the glass fiber industry: one is upward, toward enormous growth, and the other is downward, toward lower cost. The resurgence of GLARE Airbus pursues fiber metal laminates for future narrowbody construction, citing cost, weight, repair and lightning strike benefits.
Related Topics Glass Fiber.
Subscribe to CompositesWorld Magazine. Attend Carbon Fiber Fabrication methods. Energy-friendlycompositions are variants of incumbent berglass and glass compositions. Theyare obtained by reformulation of incumbent glass compositions in order to reducethe melt viscosity and increase the melting rate, thereby saving process energyand reducing environmental emissions.
As a result, new energy-friendly compo-sitions are expected to become a key factor in the future for the berglass and glassindustries. The contributors to the book consist of both academic and industrial sci-entists. This book is therefore dedicated to those in the academic and industrialcommunity who seek an understanding of the past in order to make progress in thefuture. Part I reviews a wide range ofcontinuous glass bers, their compositions, and properties. Wallenberger also authored Chapter 2.
This chapter offers a new method trend line design for designing environmentallyand energy-friendly E-, ECR-, A-, and C-glass compositions to reduce the processenergy by compositional reformulation. Few berglass applications are based onyarns; most are based on composites. A van der Woude and Dr. Lawton authored Chapter 3, which reviews berglass composite engineering withan important sub-chapter on windmill blade construction.
Longobardowrote Chapter 4. It reviews the glass bers which became available as reinforce-ment for printed circuit boards and analyzes their compositions as well as theneeds of the market. Finally Dr. Hausrath and Dr. Longobardo authoredChapter 5, which reviews high-strength glass bers and analyzes existing andemerging markets for these products. The rst twochapters Chapters 6 and 7 parallel the rst two chapters in Part I Chapters 1 and2. Smrcek wrote Chapter 6.
Glass Fiber Types
It is devoted to a wide range of industrialat, container, and technical glass compositions and to an in-depth review of theirproperties. Bingham authored Chapter 7. Hoffmann authored Chapter 8, which offers new insights into the basics of melt-ing and glass formation at the most fundamental level. Conradt wroteChapter 9, which deals with the thermodynamics of glass melting, offers a model topredict the thermodynamic properties of industrial multi-component glasses fromtheir chemical compositions, addresses the role of individual raw materials in themelting process of E-glass, and facilitates the calculation of the heat of the batch-to-melt conversion.
Glass fibers are also used as reinforcement in a variety of household items such as paper, tapes, lampshades, etc. Some special alkali-resistant glass fibers have been developed for reinforcement of cement and concrete.
Commonly, steel bars are used for such purposes. Cement, however, is very alkaline. An ordinary glass fiber such as E-glass will be severely corroded in an alkaline atmosphere, hence the need for special, alkali-resistant glass fibers Majumdar , Hannant The bonding between glass fiber and cement is mainly mechanical and has its origin in the shrinkage that occurs when the cement is set. Not surprisingly, the sporting goods industry was one of the first to make use of glass-fiber-reinforced composites.
Examples include bicycle frames, tennis rackets, golf-club shafts, cricket bats, skis, etc. Braided fibers in a resin matrix give high torsional stiffness to skis. Glass fibers are used extensively in printed circuit boards, industrial circuit breakers, conduits for power cables, etc. Glass fibers are formed from melts and manufactured in various compositions by changing the amount of raw materials like sand for silica, clay for alumina, calcite for calcium oxide, and colemanite for boron oxide. Therefore, different types of glass fibers show different performances like alkali resistance or high mechanical properties using various amounts of silica or other sources.
Glass fiber products are classified according to the type of composite at which they are utilized. Moreover, chopped strands, direct draw rovings, assembled rovings, and mats are the most important products that are used in the injection molding, filament winding, pultrusion, sheet molding, and hand layup processes to form glass fiber-reinforced composites. Protection of the glass fiber filaments from breakage or disintegration is an important issue either during manufacturing of glass fiber or during composite production.
Applying sizing agent to the glass fiber during manufacturing of fibers causes lubrication of the glass fiber filaments in addition to inhibit static electricity accumulation, adhesion of the fiber filaments together, and adhesion between fiber filaments and polymer matrix of the composites. During manufacturing of composites, an interphase layer, at which interpenetration of the sizing to the matrix or diffusion of the matrix polymer to the sizing, is formed.
The resultant interphase layer can either increase or decrease the performance of the composite considering harmony between sizing components and matrix polymer. Compatibility between sizing and matrix polymer enhances high mechanical properties and on the contrary incompatible sizing results poor mechanical properties.
Consequently, growth in the glass fiber production is what that happened and will be continued in the future. The possibility of obtaining fine glass fibers was known in ancient times even before the technology of blowing glass.
E-glass | 3B Fibreglass
Many Egyptian vessels were made by winding glass fibers on a rim of clay of a suitable form. After the appearance of glass in the first century BC, this technique was used by Venetian glassmakers in the 16th and 17th centuries to decorate the dishes. In this case, the bundles of opaque white fibers were wound on the surface of a transparent vessel, for example, a goblet, and then heated up strongly. Similar decorative effects were achieved in the production of glasses in England . Interest in the use of fiberglass for the textile industry appeared much later.
The French physicist Rene-Antoine Ferho de Reumur — produced in textiles decorated with fine glass strands . He foresaw that, if only glass fibers could be drawn of a fineness, similar to a spider's web, then they would be sufficiently pliable to permit them to be interwoven. He also appears to have drawn fibers himself, not from a glass rod, but from a pool of molten glass. British inventors conducted such an experiment in British silk weaver fabricated glass fabric in , and another inventor Edward Liebey put on glass at an exhibition in in Colombia in Chicago exhibited a dress woven of glass at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago .
In the early 19th century, some luxurious brocades were made in France by intertwining fiberglass with silk of deep color. The glass fibers looked like a bright silver pattern on a dark background. In the s, Edward Drummond Libby of Toledo, Ohio, made dresses from a fabric combining silk and fiberglass, as well as fabrics for lamp shades and ties.
At the same time, a small workshop in Paris consisted in the fact that the textiles combined silk or cotton with glass fibers and sold them at francs per meter! While this is unlikely to grow into a large market, it nevertheless demonstrated that fiberglass can be manufactured and possibly used. The method of making glass fibers be means of bushing was first demonstrated in by W. The manufacturing of textile glass fibers using the technique of drawing the fibers through very fine orifices was developed in the s in the United States and started in Germany in .
Fiberglass and glass technology : energy-friendly compositions and applications
In the early s, Owens-Illinois Glass Co. This corporation has been, and still is, the leader in the development, marketing, and technology of this industry. His influence has spread throughout the world to licenses granted to them abroad, or by creating their own manufacturing companies, sometimes in conjunction with others. Companies that created production facilities without being in any way affiliated with Owens-Corning, nevertheless still used their technology in most cases.